Many discoveries and innovations of the 19th century completely changed our way of life. Sciences and technology made fast and impressive progress. The most important of them are recalled below.
- Gay-Lussac studies on the gas dilation, Avogadro works on the molecular constitution of gases.
- In 1824, Sadi Carnot writes the bases of thermodynamics.
- speed measurement of light by Fizeau in 1829.
- Joule's law in 1840.
- Energy conservation law by Helmholtz in 1847.
- Invention of the spectral analysis in 1859 by Kirchhoff and Bunsen.
- Electromagnetic theory of light in 1864 by Maxwell.
- Periodic classification of the elements by Mendeleïev in 1869.
- Discovery of X-rays in 1895 by Roentgen, of the uranium radioactivity in 1896 by Becquerel, of the radium radioactivity in 1899 by Pierre and Marie Curie.
- Spectroscopy and analysis of sun light by Fraunhofer.
- Improvement of the telescopes.
- Fresnel and the light diffraction.
- Volta invents the battery in 1800.
- Oersted discovers electromagnetism in 1820.
- Ohm's law in 1826.
- Faraday and electromagnetic induction in 1831.
- Morse's telegraph in 1845.
- Telephone invention by Bell in 1876.
- Edison invents the electric bulb in 1879.
- Steamboat : first regular liaison on the Hudson River in 1807, first steamer to cross the Atlantic in 1838.
- Stephenson's locomotive in 1814, the first railroad in 1825 in England, in 1832 in France, 1855 in Brazil, Egypt, Australia ... across the United States, from east to west, in 1869.
- Invention of the propeller in 1832.
- Development of the internal combustion engine by Otto in 1876, the birth of the automobile industrial age.
- 1881 : first electric trams in Berlin.
- Clement Ader creates the first plane in 1890.
- Diesel engine patent in 1891.
- in 1892, Michelin patents the dismountable tire.
- Jacquard loom patented in 1801.
- Invention of the rotary press in 1845.
- Mechanization of agriculture since 1875 (reaping-machine sheaf-binder).
- The first world exhibition in London in 1851.
- Dynamite invention in 1867 by Nobel.
- Development of reinforced concrete in 1867.
- First processes of color photography in 1869.
- Invention of cinema by the Lumiere brothers in 1895.
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