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The nineteenth century


Bateau Titanic

Many discoveries and innovations of the 19th century completely changed our way of life. Sciences and technology made fast and impressive progress. The most important of them are recalled below.


Physics and chemistry

Atom représentation - Gay-Lussac studies on the gas dilation, Avogadro works on the molecular constitution of gases.
- In 1824, Sadi Carnot writes the bases of thermodynamics.
- speed measurement of light by Fizeau in 1829.
- Joule's law in 1840.
- Energy conservation law by Helmholtz in 1847.
- Invention of the spectral analysis in 1859 by Kirchhoff and Bunsen.
- Electromagnetic theory of light in 1864 by Maxwell.
- Periodic classification of the elements by Mendeleïev in 1869.
- Discovery of X-rays in 1895 by Roentgen, of the uranium radioactivity in 1896 by Becquerel, of the radium radioactivity in 1899 by Pierre and Marie Curie.
- Spectroscopy and analysis of sun light by Fraunhofer.
- Improvement of the telescopes.
- Fresnel and the light diffraction.
- etc...

Electricity and its applications

Electrical bulb - Volta invents the battery in 1800.
- Oersted discovers electromagnetism in 1820.
- Ohm's law in 1826.
- Faraday and electromagnetic induction in 1831.
- Morse's telegraph in 1845.
- Telephone invention by Bell in 1876.
- Edison invents the electric bulb in 1879.
- etc...

Transport

Steam locomotive - Steamboat : first regular liaison on the Hudson River in 1807, first steamer to cross the Atlantic in 1838.
- Stephenson's locomotive in 1814, the first railroad in 1825 in England, in 1832 in France, 1855 in Brazil, Egypt, Australia ... across the United States, from east to west, in 1869.
- Invention of the propeller in 1832.
- Development of the internal combustion engine by Otto in 1876, the birth of the automobile industrial age.
- 1881 : first electric trams in Berlin.
- Clement Ader creates the first plane in 1890.
- Diesel engine patent in 1891.
- in 1892, Michelin patents the dismountable tire.
- etc...

Mechanization

 Steam reaping-machine - Jacquard loom patented in 1801.
- Invention of the rotary press in 1845.
- Mechanization of agriculture since 1875 (reaping-machine sheaf-binder).
- etc...

Other areas

Fades viaduct - The first world exhibition in London in 1851.
- Dynamite invention in 1867 by Nobel.
- Development of reinforced concrete in 1867.
- First processes of color photography in 1869.
- Invention of cinema by the Lumiere brothers in 1895.
- etc...

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